EnglishSpanishDrug Class & Related Drugs
An unusual rise in opportunistic infections and rare malignancies observed in young homosexual men led to recognition of a new disease known as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the year 1981 by the Center for disease communication and prevention (CDC). (1) The causative agent was subsequently identified to be a retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In the following years AIDS emerged as one of the most devastating infectious diseases in recent history. (2, 3) HIV-1 is known to be highly infectious and spread by multiple routes, sexual, percutaneous, and perinatal routes. AIDS is considered primarily a sexually transmitted disease since over 80% of infected adult populations has acquired HIV-1 as a result of exposure at the mucosal surfaces. In the past three decades the pandemic form of HIV-1, also called the main (M) group, has infected at least 60 million people and caused more than 25 million deaths worldwide. Women make up 50% of all adults living with HIV. There are distinct differences in the developing and developed world as shown by greater HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The highest prevalence rates have been documented in young adults in sub- Saharan Africa (SSA).
El VIH pertenece a la familia Retroviridae, subfamilia Lentiviridae. El VIH es relativamente termosensible. Se inactiva cuando es expuesto a 56ºC durante 30 minutos. Los mejores desinfectantes son el cloruro de benzanconio, hipoclorito de sodio al 0.1%, etanol al 70%, glutaraldehído al 2% y los detergentes no iónicos. Se trata de un retrovirus con varias cubiertas externas proteicas capaces de cambiar en forma constante. Este retrovirus
puede alojarse en un segmento del cromosoma y permanecer latente durante muchas generaciones celulares. El VIH requiere una enzima, la transcriptasa reversa, para multiplicarse. La variabilidad química de este virus ha complicado la investigación tanto para su tratamiento como para el desarrollo de una vacuna efectiva. Estado de portación: es imprevisible, puede ser de 7 a 9 años, o más.
Atripla efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir class: antiviral combinations
Complera emtricitabine/rilpivirine/tenofovir class: antiviral combinations
Emtriva emtricitabine class: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
Epivir lamivudine class: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
Epzicom abacavir/lamivudine class: antiviral combinations
Intelence etravirine class: NNRTIs
Isentress raltegravir class: integrase strand transfer inhibitor
Kaletra lopinavir/ritonavir class: protease inhibitors
Lexiva fosamprenavir class: protease inhibitors
Norvir ritonavir class: protease inhibitors
Prezista darunavir class: protease inhibitors
Reyataz atazanavir class: protease inhibitors
Stribild cobicistat/elvitegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir class: antiviral combinations
Sustiva efavirenz class: NNRTIs
Trizivir abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine class: antiviral combinations
Truvada emtricitabine/tenofovir class: antiviral combinations
Videx didanosine class: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
Viramune nevirapine class: NNRTIs
Viread tenofovir class: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
Ziagen abacavir class: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)